Muhamamd Asad translates 6:159 as follows:
"VERILY, as for those who have broken the unity of their faith and have become sects – thou hast nothing to do with them."
His comment on this verse is as follows (bolding is mine):
"A reference primarily to the Jews and the Christians, who have departed from the fundamental religious principles which they had originally shared in their entirety, and have gone different ways in respect of doctrine and ethics (cf. 3:105). Beyond this "primary" reference, however, the above verse connects logically with verse 153 above, "this is the way leading straight unto Me: follow if, then, and follow not other ways, lest they cause you to deviate from His way" – and thus relates prophetically to the followers of the Qur'an as well: in other words, it expresses a condemnation of all sectarianism arising out of people's intolerant, mutually-exclusive claims to being "the only true exponents" of the Qur'anic teachings. Thus, when asked about the implications of this verse, the Prophet's Companion Abu Hurayrah is reported to have answered, "It has been revealed with reference to this [our] community" (Tabari)."
Here, then, is a verse referring to the Jews and Christians of the Holy Prophet's time, which Asad says "relates prophetically" to Muslims. Would our opponents challenge Asad and say: Where does this verse mention that it is (1) a prophecy, and (2) it is about Muslims?
So now I have quoted: Dr Israr Ahmad, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Maulana Maudoodi, and Muhammad Asad, all saying that the Quran's descriptions of the wrongs committed in religion by Jews (and Christians) are prophecies applying to Muslims.